– Affirmative sentences (+):
Present Simple = verb base* (+ s/es in 3rd person)
I speak English.
You eat breakfast.
He lives in New York.
She goes upstairs.
* verb base = infinitive without ‘to’
* Exception: verbs ‘to be’ (am / is / are) & ‘have (got)’(have / has)
– Negative sentences (-):
Regular negative: Subject + DO/DOES + NOT + VERB + complement:
I do not have money. = don’t
He does not love you. = doesn’t
‘to be’: Subject + AM / IS / ARE + NOT + complement:
I am not happy.
She is not here. = isn’t
We are not in New York. = aren’t
He plays football.
He doesn’t play football.
I sleep well every night.
I don’t sleep well every night.
Dogs hate cats.
Dogs don’t hate cats.
– Questions (?):
Regular: Aux.V + Subject + (Adverb) + Infinitive + Complement
He usually plays football —> Does he usually play football?
Dogs normally hate cats —> Do dogs normally hate cats?
‘to be’: Am / Is / Are + Subject + (Adverb) + Complement
He is usually here —> Is he usually here?
I’m okay —> Am I okay?
Wh- questions: where, who, when, etc.
Regular: Q.W.+ Aux.V + Subject. + (Adverb) + Infinitive + Complement
Where do birds (+ adverb) live?
When does he come home?
‘to be’: Q.W + am / is / are + (Adverb) + Subject +(Adverb) + Complement
Who are they?
Where is this table normally?
– Daily routines, things that happen regularly.
I get up at 7am and have breakfast at school. I spend six hours a day at school, and then I go home for lunch at 3pm. I do my homework in the evening, I watch TV and chat with my friends. Then I go to bed around 11.30pm. Weekends are different…
– Facts, generalisations and universal truths.
Dogs hate cats. (generalisation)
My sister teaches at a local school in Hull. (fact)
He plays football really well. (fact)
Water freezes at 0ºC. (scientific fact)
Young people love pubs. (generalisation)
Nurses look after patients in hospitals. (fact)
The earth goes round the sun. (scientific fact, universal truth)
– Scheduled events in the near future.
The train leaves at 6 am.
The party starts at 8 pm.
Lessons begin tomorrow.
– State verbs: certain verbs can only take take the present simple tense, not a continuous tense (e.g.: I am making my bed). These verbs are those that do not express an action, but a state or feeling. Some common state verbs are: agree, bee, believe, belong, care, forget, hate, hear, know, like, love, mean, mind, notice, own, remember, seem, suppose, understand, want, wish, etc.
I love parties!
What does this word mean?
We all believe that you should carry on.
That man owns an enormous house in the country.
– Frequency adverbs: adverbs of frequency usually go before the verb, except with the verb ‘to be’. However, some adverbs can also go at the beginning or end of a sentence. Also, adverbial phrases can only go at the beginning or end of the sentence.
I usually go home at 8 o’clock. (verb to go)
I get up at 8 a.m. every morning. (every morning = adverbial phrase)
I am normally free on Fridays. (verb to be)
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